What is corona virus? different stains history and nature of corona virus

Before discussing about a very famous and notorious virus known as corona virus that what is its nature bio-synthetic machinery mode of action history symptoms as well as preventive measures. We should know what a virus actually is and what are some of the properties of viruses that makes it such. So if we want to simply define virus than we can define it as following
 Virus is a extremely small infectious agent that only replicates inside the living cells of an organism or it is a non cellular infectious entities that are generally made up of a protein coat and DNA or RNA as its genetic materiel and they lack their own bio-synthetic machinery and they replicate by taking over the bio-synthetic machinery of its host   
there are some specific properties or characteristics that are limited to viruses and they are as following

  • they are obligate intracellular parasites 
  • they are extremely small in size 
  • they lack bio-synthetic machinery of their own 
  • viruses have the ability to infect all type of life forms weather they are plants animals bacteria or even archaea 
  • they are found in every ecosystem of the earth 
  • there is a lot of variety among viruses 
if we talk about viruses than we would come across names of great personalities of this field that worked on viruses and whose contributions are of great importance in this field and some of these persons are

  • Louis Pasture  
  • Wendell Meredith Stanley
  • Charles Chamberland 
  • Ernest William Goodpasture 
  • Alice Woodruff
  • Robley Williams 
  • Luc Montagnier 
  • Michael Houghton 
  • John Franklin Enders 
Most of us will be familer with this particular virus because of its recent corona virus outbreak in Wuhan China that is also known as Wuhan corona virus outbreak . Most of us would think it is a new type of virus basically corona viruses are a group of viruses that have the ability to cause disease in mammals as well as birds and it is a highly contagious virus and it is responsible for respiratory infections. Actually its a animal virus but there are some stains of it that have the ability to infect humans and examples of such corona viruses that have the ability to infect humans are as following  
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome MERS also known as camel flu is caused by one of the stain of corona virus 
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS is also caused by a different stain of similar virus that is the corona virus 
  • novel or that is also known as the Wuhan corona out break
corona viruses are actually a group of viruses in that have different stains or types each type show different types of complications such the Wuhan corona outbreak is caused by a new stain or a stain may be mutated in some ways. Such that there can be varies possibilities and that with time new stains of viruses are being discovered such they are also changing such that they are also evolving. Corona viruses causes diseases in many animals such as 
  • chickens 
  • pigs 
  • cows 
  • bats 
  • camels 
these viruses usually infect animals but there are stains (as of today there are 7 stains or types of corona viruses known to scientists that infects humans also known as human corona viruses) that can potentially evolve in stains or had been evolved that can infect humans and its best examples are 
  • Wuhan corona virus outbreak 
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome 
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome 
The name corona virus comes from a Latin word corona that mean halo or crown and it is named so because it have crown like spikes on its surface. Corona virus are usually large lipid enveloped single stranded RNA virus that are usually in humans responsible for causing respiratory disorders they are enveloped spherical virus that are about 120 nm in diameter things that contribute to the overall structure of the corona virus are 

  • nucleocapsid 
  • spike 
  • envelope 
  • membrane  

Types of corona virus

we can classify corona viruses as two types that are 
  • human corona viruses 
  • animal corona viruses 
human corona viruses are those that can infect human and there are 7 stains of corona virus discovered till now that have the ability to infect humans and they are 
  • corona virus stain that is related to middle east respiratory syndrome 
  • corona virus stain that is related to severe acute respiratory syndrome 
  • human corona virus NL63 
  • Wuhan outbreak corona virus that is now named as Novel corona virus 
  • human corona virus OC43
  • human corona virus 229E 
  • human corona virus HKU1 
similar to that of human corona viruses there are also many animal corona viruses such as 
  • bovine corona virus 
  • swine acute diarrhea syndrome corona virus or animal corona virus HKU2 
  • canine corona virus 
  • infectious bronchitis virus 
  • rabbit enteric corona virus 
  • ferret enteric corona virus 
  • porcine corona virus 
  • feline corona virus 
  • turkey corona virus
  • ferret systemic corona virus
  • canine corona virus
  • porcine corona virus 
  • pantropic corona virus   
corona viruses are further divided into four main subgroups that are known as 
  • alpha corona virus 
  • beta corona virus 
  • gamma corona virus 
  • delta corona virus 
such that if we consider some of the corona virus types according to these subgroups that they are as following 
  • human corona virus 229E is a alpha corona virus 
  • human corona virus HKU1 is a beta corona virus 
  • human corona virus OC43 is a beta corona virus 
  • human corona virus NL63 is a alpha corona virus 
  • middle east respiratory syndrome is a beta corona virus 
  • turkey corona virus is a gamma corona virus 
  • transmissible gastroenteritis corona virus is a alpha corona virus 
  • feline corona virus is a alpha corona virus 
Discovery of corona virus
As i have discussed above corona virus is not a single virus it is actually a group of viruses that have a lot of different types or stains all of these stains have different such as 
  • turkey corona virus that was first discovered in 1951 
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome discovered in 2002 that first appeared Guangdong China   
  • middle east respiratory syndrome in 2012 in Jeddah Saudi Arabia 
  • Wuhan corona outbreak in 2019 in Wuhan china  
  • human corona virus HKU1 was discovered in 2005 
corona virus disease was first described in 1931 and the first corona virus was isolated in 1965 

 Symptoms and preventive measures of corona virus 
Some of the general symptoms that may appear as a result of human corona virus mainly viruses such as and one thing is to be remembered it is a respiratory virus 
  • novel or Wuhan corona virus  
  • middle east respiratory syndrome
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome
are as following 
  • fever 
  • breathing problems
  • sore throat 
  • ventilatory support 
  • dypsnoea
  • diarrhea 
  • dry cough 
as it is a virus there is no proper treatment for it but there are some preventive measures by which we can protect our self from this deadly virus and they are
  • wearing face mask in public 
  • avoiding contact with people that are infected or are showing any symptom of it 
  • hand wash 
  • avoid over touching things in public 
  • as it is highly contagious their is high chance of transmission of corona virus during contact through respiratory droplets that are produced during sneezing and coughing  



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