Showing posts from December, 2019

What is hypothalamus? functions and embryonic development of hypothalamus along with hypothalamic disorders

HYPOTHALAMUS introduction I n the body at the same time various life sustaining process are being carried out and various organs works continuously to make various secretions that maintain that controls various metabolic activities endocrine activities exocrine activities of the body but every thing in the body needs a control and coordinating center to work properly and effectively and brain is the most important and crucial coordinating and control central of the body and this brain consist of various components and each components holds a great importance in the body all these whole components effects the whole body in some way. Among all the important components and the structures of the brain there is a structure that goes by the name of hypothalamus and in bodies of living organisms it have various importance such as it is responsible for building a link between the nervous system and the endocrine system through the Pituitary gland . Hypothalamus also produces various hor

What is stomach? embryonic development and functions of stomach along with disease related to stomach

STOMACH introduction L ike all of the other important systems operating in the body and their various important components that forms the those systems and without which body cannot work properly. Among those systems of the body of the living organisms there is a system that goes by the name of digestive system and without this system body can't digest the food taken that ultimately would be broken further and further and from which there would be energy extraction that acts as the fuel of the body on which the whole body works and the most important component of this digestive system without which the whole process of digestion is impossible goes by the name of stomach. Stomach is the most vital digestive organ of the body of the humans as well as all the other animals that have a proper digestive system. Stomach is a J-shaped muscular and a hollow organ of the gastrointestinal tract and it is located between the esophagus and the duodenum region of the small intestine. If

What is pineal gland? what are functions of pineal gland its embryonic development along with disorder of the pineal gland

PINEAL GLAND introduction A mong all of the other endocrine glands of the body there is also a very important endocrine gland present mostly in all of the vertebrates that goes by the name of pineal gland. Almost of the vertebrates have this pineal gland in there body but there are some also that do not have this gland such that exceptions are present in all cases but such vertebrates would have some other structure at its place performing functions that this gland is responsible for. A french scientist known by the name of Rene Descartes in the 17th century disused the pineal gland in his first book and that book was known by the name of Treatise of Man and he also believed that pineal gland is the principal seat of the soul. At a point of time in the history it was also known by the name of third eye. At the time when the pineal gland was being understood some people also believed it to be a vestigial remnant of a large organ. The Latin name of pineal gland is glandula pineali

What is thymus gland? functions and embryonic development of thymus gland along with diseases related to it

THYMUS GLAND introduction O ne of the most important component and the lymphoid organ of the human body goes by the name of thymus gland. It is a part of lymphatic system and its precursor is the third pharyngeal pouch. If we talk about the structure of the thymus gland than we can say that thymus gland is made up of two identical lobes these two lobes of the thymus gland differ slightly in size and may be united or separated. Thymic tissues may be found scattered or around the gland. A person normally can't fell the thymus gland from outside of the body as it is located behind the sternum. Thymus gland is basically made up of two different types of cells that differ in their properties and these cells are as following  thymic stromal cells  hematopoietic cells (that are derived from bone marrow cells that are known as hematopoietic stem cells ) thymus gland is the most largest in size and most active during the neonatal and pre-adolescent periods. By the time of earl

What is spleen?functions and embryonic development of spleen along with disease related to spleen

SPLEEN Introduction S pleen is a very vital and crucial organ that is present in the bodies of all vertebrates it's very vital organ for the body as it is involved in old red blood cells recycling along with the storage of platelets as well as white blood cells along with this it is also involved in immunity and immune system and also responsible for regulation and production of various types of lymphocytes. In case of humans spleen is present in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen and lies between the 9th and 11th ribs on left side and is along the axis of the 10th rib. Spleen is underneath the left part of the diaphragm and has a smooth surface that faces diaphragm. Spleen is also protected by the rib cage to prevent it from any physical trauma as rib cage protects other vital organs present in the thoracic cavity. spleen is generally fist shaped and normally one cannot feel it by touching it from outside the body unless it's size is abnormally increased due of any