Showing posts from November, 2019

what is liver?regeneration and embryonic development of liver along with diseases related to liver.

LIVER introduction O ne of the most important organ of the vertebrates goes by the name of liver. In human body liver is located below diaphragm to the upper right of the abdomen and overlies the gallbladder. Liver feels rubbery to touch normally one cannot feel the liver by touching from outside of the body as it is protected by the rib cage. A portion of the liver goes into the upper abdomen as well. Liver accounts for about 20% of the resting total body oxygen consumption. Liver receives a dual blood supply from the hepatic portal vein and the hepatic artery. The hepatic portal vein delivers around 75% of the liver blood supply and carries venous blood drained from the spleen and gastrointestinal tract. Blood flows through the liver sinusoids and empties into the central vein of each lobule which than leaves the liver and drains into the inferior vena cava. It is expected that liver performs about 500 different functions some of the important functions of the liver are as fol

what is pancreas? its exocrine role along with role of islets of Langerhans and diseases related to pancreas

PANCREAS introduction P ancreas is also one of the most important gland of human because it performs dual functions such as it performs role as an endocrine gland and as well as an exocrine gland. As an endocrine gland it is involved in production and release of various useful hormones such as insulin and glucagon whereas it plays its exocrine role in digestion of food at the level of duodenum of the small intestine by secreting pancreatic juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct. Pancreas in humans is also known ass heterocrine gland because of its dual function. In humans pancreas is present in the abdomen behind the stomach. Pancreas is about 6-8 inches long. The head of the pancreas is on the right side of the abdomen and is connected to the duodenum through the help of the pancreatic duct from which pancreas pours its pancreatic juice into the duodenum of the small intestine.The narrow end of the pancreas that also goes by the name of tail extends to the left sid

what is adrenal gland? what are its two regions and the hormones released from the adrenal gland

ADRENAL GLAND  introduction  A drenal gland are one of the most important endocrine gland of the body . Adrenal glands are also known by the name of suprarenal glands as they are present above the kidneys both of the adrenal glands are divided into two regions that are the upper region that is known as the adrenal cortex whereas the lower region is known as the adrenal medulla . In humans adrenal glands are located on both sides of the back in the retroperitoneum above and slightly medial to the kidneys both of the adrenal glands are of pyramidal shape whereas the left adrenal gland is slightly larger than the right one . In humans adrenal glands are 1.0 cm thick 5.0 cm in length and are 3.0 cm width . These glands are of yellowish color in an adult human both of the adrenal glands weight about 7 -10 grams . A fatty capsule surrounds the adrenal gland which also surrounds the kidneys and lies within the renal fascia . The location of the adrenal gland is such that they are prese

what is parathyroid gland? what are its functions and the diseases related to parathyroid gland

PARATHYROID GLAND introduction  parathyroid gland is also one of the most important endocrine gland of the body that is also present in the neck region in case of humans and some of the tetrapods in humans there are actually four parathyroid glands that are present at variable regions at the back of the  thyroid gland  the hormone that parathyroid gland produces and secretes is known as parathyroid hormone (PTH) that is released in response of low blood calcium levels in the blood from the epithelial lining of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches all of the four parathyroid glands are derived. The total four parathyroid glands the upper two and the lower two are produced in such a way the upper two (upper left and right) derives from the fourth pouch whereas the lower two (lower left and lower right) are produced from the third pouch . There are two parathyroid glands on each lobe of the  thyroid gland  such as two lobes of the thyroid gland have four parathyroid gland on the

what is thyroid gland ? thyroids hormone and diseases of thyroid gland

THYROID GLAND introduction             thyroid gland is one the most important endocrine gland present in the body various releasing factors that are mainly produced from the  pituitary gland    and the hormones that this gland produces are poured into the blood so that  they can be taken to the target site so that they can perform their specific functions this thyroid gland in present in the neck region structurally it consist of two lobes that are the left and the right lobes but in some few and rare cases there is a third lobe present that is known as the pyramidal lobe because this lobe is the remnant of the thyroglossal duct which usually waste away during the thyroid's gland descent . Its two lobes that are the left and the right lobe are connected to each other by the help of a structure known as isthmus from its front and upper view this gland looks like a butterfly having two lobes connected by isthmus if we talk about the length and the width of this gland than we c

what is pituitary gland? what is its lobes and various hormones released from different lobes of pituitary gland

PITUITARY GLAND  introduction  pituitary gland is also known by a other name known as hypophysis cerebri . In humans the wight of pituitary gland is about 0.5 grams and in humans it of pea shaped . It acts as a endocrine gland releasing its product in the form of hormones to control and regulated various functions and processes of the body . Pituitary gland is a pea shaped projection of the hypothalamus and that is present at the base of the brain . It is connected to the brain through a short stalk known as infundibulum . The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland controls various process such as stress growth reproduction and lactation the intermediate lobe of the pituitary also known as the median lobe is mainly responsible for the production and release of a hormone known as melanophore stimulating hormone (MSH) where as processes such asblood pressure control various aspects of hormones involved in reproduction and reproductive organs along with water and salt regulation at