respiration in hydra earthworm cockroach fish and in frog

hope well thanks for your great support in the previous segments of this blog so in this segment of the blog i would like to talk about respiration respiration in hydra earthworm cockroach fish frog and in birds the mechanism of respiration in them different structure that are involved in it and the pathway of movement of air inside and outside of the body and the thing if you want to know anything related to biology so please let me know down in the comment section and please follow my blog by clicking the follow button below my picture on left side to show your great support so
                     lets start 
all of the levels of activities in living organisms an uninterrupted supply of energy is required respiration is one of the most important metabolic activities off all of the organisms by which energy is released and is supplied for the activities of living organisms 
levels of respiration 
respiration occurs at two levels that are organismic level and the second one is the cellular level  
organismic respiration 
gaseous exchange between organism and the environment is known as the organismic respiration it is also known as the breathing and also known as the ventilation 
cellular respiration 
cellular respiration is defined as the process by which the cell utilizes oxygen produce carbon dioxide extracts and conserves the energy from the food molecules in biologically useful form such as ATP 
respiration in hydra 
such that hydra has no special structure or organs for the process of respiration 
gaseous exchange that is intake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide occurs through the entire general surface of the body that is in contact with the water exchange of gases also takes place or occur in the cell lining in the digestive cavity in this way surface lining of the enteron acts as an efficient respiratory surface
respiration in earthworm 
although earthworm is much complex than the hydra yet it does not have any of special organ or structure for gaseous exchange 
gaseous exchange 
gaseous exchange mainly occurs through the skin such that in them the skin is richly supplied with the blood capillaries and is always kept moist by the secretions of the epidermal mucous gland cell and is also coelomic fluid through the dorsal pores of the skin 
transport of oxygen 
oxygen dissolved on the wet surface passes through the cuticle and epidermal cell into the blood in the blood oxygen combines with the hemoglobin to form the oxyhemoglobin such that oxyhemoglobin releases oxygen at the tissue level  in earthworm the blood does not comes in direct contact with the tissue cells so oxygen diffuses through the tissue fluid and into the coelomic fluids
removal of carbon dioxide 
carbon dioxide is removed from the tissue by the blood and is carried in plasma to the skin from where it is excreted 
respiration in cockroach 
respiratory system 
such that the cockroach has special organs for the process of respiration its respiratory system is very specialized consisting of branching of air tubules known as the trachea that is lined by chitin 
various structures or components of tracheal system are explained below 
the main tracheal trunk communicates with the exterior by 10 pairs of apertures of spiracles present on the lateral side of the body two pairs are in thorax while the eight rest are in each of the eight abdominal segments 
main tracheal trunk is lined by chitin main of the trachea divides and subdivides forming very fine thin walled tubules called as the tracheoles these tracheoles end into blind ducts partly filled with the fluid in which the oxygen dissolves 
end cells 
these surrounds the organs and the tissue and directly supply oxygen to the living cells 
pathway of gaseous exchange 
air enters through spiracles into the trachea from the trachea it moves into the tracheoles where the gaseous exchange between the tissue cells and air in tracheoles takes place  
air is directly supplied to cells and such that blood is not suppiled during any of the process 
air moves into and out of the spiracles due to two factors that are 
*concentration gradient between trachea and spiracles due to which air diffuses into the trachea from outside 
*the movement of air through tracheal trunk is facilitated through the contractions of abdominal muscles 
respiration in fish 
respiratory structures 
gills are the most of the effective and highly modified for the gaseous exchange in aquatic animals 
structures of gill
*gills are the paired structures present in the either side of the body almost at the junction of head and the trunk
*they are in four to five pairs which may open through the gill slits and are visible on the surface of the pharynx or are placed in bronchial cavities covered by operculum 
*they have great surface area for the gaseous exchange their surfaced is all the time ventilated by the constant flow of water
water carrying oxygen enters the mouth and after passing over the gills moves out of the body through the gill opening at the gill level oxygen enters the blood and the carbon dioxide moves out 
transport of gases 
heart pumps the blood to gills from the where oxygenated blood is carried to all of the parts of the body the deoxygenated blood from the different parts of the body is received by the heart heart of fish is only single circuit and the blood only flows in on direction 
respiration in frog 
in frog the gaseous exchange occurs through the lungs through skin and through its buccal chamber which is richly supplied with blood vessels 
*the gaseous exchange through the skin is known as the cutaneous respiration 
*gaseous exchange through the lungs is known as the pulmonary respiration 
*in frog the air enters through the nostrils such that when the nostrils are open at that time the mouth is closed
*after the entry of air the nostrils close  such that the floor of the buccal cavity is raised air is pushes into the lungs  
*this is known as the inhalation or inspiration 
*such that the gaseous exchange takes place in the lungs 
*after the exchange of gases the respired air moves out of the body following the same path 
                    thanks for reading                                


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