division of terrestrial ecosystem

hope well thanks for your great support in the previous segments of this blog so in this segment of the blog  i would like to talk about terrestrial ecosystem its types every single detail of each type such as life in it temperature such as animals in it plants in it rain rain and every single thing related to it and the thing if you want to know anything related to biology so please let me know down in the comment section and please follow my blog so that it would indicate your support so
                            lets start
terrestrial ecosystem 
*such type of ecosystem that is present on land or soil is called as the terrestrial or lithospheric ecosystem 
*some of its characteristics are
*it receives a plenty of sunlight directly from sun 
*soil present on the land provides abundant nutrient supply to living organisms 
*however water is also limited and is unevenly distributed on earth 
division of terrestrial ecosystem 
such that earth can be divided and subdivided into further main types that are given below 
*forest ecosystem that can be further subdivided into 
1-tropical rain forest 
2-temperate deciduous forests 
3-conifers alpine and boreal forests 
*grassland ecosystem 
*desert ecosystem 
*tundra ecosystem 
temperate deciduous forests 
in all over the world such type of forest are found in southeast Asia south and north America Europe china japan Australia and is also covered India
*as it is slightly away from the equator so the rainfall in it is not equally distributed such that there are wet and dry steams that means distinct summer and winter seasons 
*during dry seasons trees cannot get enough water from the soil to compensate for the evaporation from their leaves 
*as a result of this plants have adapted to the dry seasons by shedding their leaves due to having minimum water loss
*if the rain fail to return on schedule the trees delay forming new leaves until the drought passes 
the average rainfall in such regions is about between 750-1500mm
in such a place the temperature ranges from 4-30 C 
plant life 
*many of the herbs and shrubs are with a height of about 5 meter are present 
*some of the grasses ferns and other of the herbaceous plants make up the field layer 
*at the bottom or the floor level many mosses liverworts and lichens covered with litter layer are present 
some of the dominant plants are  Taxus baccata , Pinus wallichiana , Berberis lyceum 
animal life 
some of the very common examples of animals in such regions are rhesus monkey black bear leopard cat deer wolves with various types of micro organisms such as bacteria fungi earthworm that convet litter into organic matter 
soil condition 
the soil of temperate deciduous forest is 
*it is grayish brown in color
*very fertile and is rich in organic matter 
*with the maximum water holding capacity 
human impact 
in such of the regions that is the temperate deciduous forest large mammals such as the black bear deer wolves bobcats and mountain loins were formerly abundant but the predators have been largely wiped out by humans need of lumber and its use in agriculture has reduced many of the temperate deciduous forests from the world 
coniferous alpine and boreal forests                          
in the world they are usually stretched across Europe and Asia north America Canada just south to tundra 
northern coniferous forests are also known as the taiga different features of taiga are given below 
*in such regions conditions are harsher than the temperate deciduous forests 
*the winter are longer and colder and the growing seasons are shorter the few months of warm weather are too short to allow the trees the luxurious growth of regrowing 
alpines and boreals
*coniferous forests located at high altitude are known as the alpine 
*where as on the other hand coniferous forests located at the high latitude are known as the boreal 
snow and temperature 
*in such regions there is a constant cover of snow characterizes by long sever winters 
*temperature may be low below the freezing point and high up to 10 degree centigrade
plant life 
because of its harsh conditions the diversity of life is very less in such regions important plants such as Pinus wallichiana , Pinus roxburgii , Abies pindrow , Picea smithiana etc are present 
animal life 
large mammals like bison wolf black bear deer marcopolo sheep and some of the smaller animals wolverines etc are present 
human impact 
due to severity of climate and remoteness most of the coniferous forests remain undisturbed these forests are a major source of lumber for construction so forests have been cleared in the world 
the grassland ecosystem  
in all over the world you can see a large grassland in the center of eurassian continents 
prairies and savanna 
*grassland present in temperate climates are also called as the prairies such as the prairies of north America and pampas of Argentina such that these grasslands do not have the woody plants so they are known as prairies whereas  on the other land
*the grasslands of tropic climates have woody trees and are known as the savanna
*these grassland usually face severe droughts 
*in the the annual rainfall is about 250-750mm about 10-30 inches 
*in the tropical and in subtropical grasslands rainfall reaches about 1500mm about 60minches thus grass lands occurs in regions where mean annual rainfall is midway between a forest and a desert 
*in general they have a continuous cover of grass and virtually no trees at all except along the rivers water and fires are the main and the crucial factors in the competition between the grasses and trees 
plant life 
the dominant species are graminoid such that grasses grass like plants certain forbs such as composition legumes and many other of the herbaceous plant species are also associated with grasses
such that layering is only the characteristic of grasslands 
*tall grasses from the first layer
*mid high grasses from the second layer 
*the third layer is formed by short grasses and forbs and some of the warfare species such as poa bromus with the mosses and lichens 
soil condition 
*the soil moisture is limited on account of low precipitation and high evaporation 
*the upper layer in which grasses are rooted is normally moist but deeper layer are not constantly dry
the soil of grassland is basically impermeable with excessive salinity
animal life 
*the dormant species are herbivores invertebrate including insects are very numerous grasshopper become so numerous that they can compete with other herbivores for plants foliage 
*the predators are reptiles amphibians and mammals for example lizard toads and turtles prey insects foxes and wolves among mammals are very common 
*large animals such as the zebras wild horses bison are very important 
among decomposes many of the bacteria and fungi like molds yeast mushroom and bracket fungi are most common 
*in the temperate grassland rate of primary production is about 700-1500g/m^2 annually
*in sub-humid tropical grassland it is more than 4000g/m^2
*in annually large gazing animals consume relativity small amount of the total gerbage produced 
*invertebrates rodents and birds may consume equal amount or a little more 
human impact 
*the natural grassland in world are used for the crop production and live stock management
*only a small fraction of world grassland has been used in cultivation due to arid climate condition with soil erosion with salinity 
*gazing has a prominent effect on grassland 
*overgrazing causes reduction in herbage cover and result in the soil erosion 
many of the lands are converted into desert by a process known as the desertification due to over gazing
desert ecosystem

these biomes are found on every continent often around 20-30 north and south latitude and also in the rain shadow of major mountain ranges desert includes a variety of environment at one extreme are certain areas of Sahara and Chile where it is virtually never rain and there is no vegetation the more common deserts however are characterized by widely spaced vegetation and large areas of bare ground 
in such regions rainfall is less than 25-50cm such that 10-20 inches or not at all
plant life 
important plants are bushes cactus and euphorbia some of their characters in relation of desert ecosystem are 
*they are space evenly 
*frequently the perennials plants are bushes or cacti with large shallow root system 
*plants are covered with waterproof thick and waxy layer coating to prevent evaporation of precious water 
*they have flesh stem in which water is stored for use during period of drought 
animal life 
like plants animal are also specially adapted to survive on little water most deserts appear to be almost completely devoid of animals life during day because the animals seek relief from the sun and heat in cool under ground burrows in the dark when the desert cools down horned lizids and other of the reptiles emerges to feed as do the mammals such as the kangaroos rats and birds such as the burrowing owl 
*most of the smaller animals survive without even drinking at all getting all the water they need from their food and what produced during cellular respiration in their tissues 
*large animals such as the deserts bighorns sheep and camel are dependent on permanent water holes during the direst times of the year 
human impact 
human impact in this ecosystem is less however he making other ecosystems desert know as the desertification 
*an example of this is Sahel making border of southern edge of Sahara desert in Africa two factors have caused spreading of this desert that are 
*25 years of below average rainfall
*rapid growth of human population 
loss of productivity and increasing population caused famines as in Ethiopia in mid 1980s
tundra ecosystem       
it is biome seen before reaching polar ice caps 
*arctic tundra stretches across the northern north America north Europe and Siberia
*alpine tundra is present across mountains above the timberline such as the mountains of karakoram and koh hindu kash
alpine and arctic tundra 
*tundra of high altitude is known as the alpine tundra 
*tundra of high latitude is called as the arctic tundra in relation of arctic ocean it is used to describe vegetation in treeless high latitude between taiga and polar ice caps 
plant life 
tundra is perhaps more fragile of all the biomes because of its short growing seasons the ground is carpeted with small perennial flowers and dwarf willows with large lichens called as the reindeer moss a willow 4 inch high may have a trunk 7 centimeters (3 inches) in diameter and be 50 years old
human impact 
the tundra is perhaps the most fragile of all the biomes because of its short growing season a willow 10 centimeter(4 inches) high may have a trunk of 7 centimeters (3inches) in diameter and be 50 years old human activities in the tundra leaves scares that persist for centuries fortunately for the tundra inhabitants the impact of civilization is localized around oil drilling sites pipelines mines etc
            thanks for reading                                      



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