digestion and absorption digestion in amoba, hydra, planaria, cockroach

hope well thanks for your great support in the previous segments of this blog so in this segment of the blog i would like to talk about digestion and absorption different process that are involved in all of this and digestion and absorption in many of the living organisms such as in hydra amoeba cockroach planaria and and all of the things involved in this and the thing if you want to know anything related to biology so please let me know down in the comment section and please follow my blog to show your great support so
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digestion and absorption 
*all of the animals have similar requirements but although these requirement differ in detail such that all of the animals must have a constant supply of water oxygen simple sugars amino acids fatty acids minerals and vitamins for their proper growth but the problem is that except water and oxygen not all of these things are found in this form they are found in nature in complex form such that to use them living organisms have to break them into the simplex and functional components 
*in nature these all of the things are available in the form of lipids protein carbohydrates and many more so the organisms have to obtain them in this for and have to simplify them to use them for their body needs
*such that these all of the molecules can not be consumed in this way so to consume it the living organisms have to break it by differ process that are described below
the process that is involve in the digestion and adsorption of food in a living organisms are
ingestion it is defines as the intake of food 
digestion it is defined as the breakdown of complex substances into simpler substance by the action of enzymes it can be of two types that is intracellular digestion and extracellular digestion
absorption it is defined as the intake of diffusible food molecules from the digestive regions across the membrane into the cell or into the blood
assimilation it is defines as the utilization of the products of digestion for production of energy or synthesis of cellular material 
egestion it is defined as the elimination of undigested matter from the body 
digestion in amoeba 
*such that amoeba has both intracellular and extracellular digestion and it feeds on many kind of tiny organisms which live with in the fresh water bodies
*amoeba also feed particular organic matter food may be ingested at any point on the surface of the body 
*when the amoeba comes in contact with the food particles it immediately put out pseudopodia that is cytoplasmic projection around it 
*the pseudopodia fuse together around the food particle forming a food vacuole
*if the food particle is very big that the amoeba encircles it thus forming a large food vacuole 
*the food vacuole undergo many changes as the digestion proceeds 
*first it grows smaller than larger and small again lysosomes that contains hydrolytic enzymes fuses with the food vacuole and enzymes are secreted into it 
*the first phase of digestion is killing and softening of food that takes place in the acidic medium approx. pH 5.6 and later its pH becomes 7.3 during which the digestion is completed 
*when the digestion is completed the food vacuole membrane is drawn in to numerous fine canals 
*the products of digestion are passed into the canals and finally in the surrounding cytoplasm 
*after the use of food the waste material is thrown out from at any point from the body 

digestion in ahydra  
hydra is a aquatic diploblastic coelenterate 
*it has a vase like body composed up of two principal layers of cells 
*some of the digestion in hydra is extracellular but most of the digestion is intracellular 
*the animal has a single opening to the outside known as them mouth which is surrounded by mobile tentacles the digestive cavity of hydra is also known as the coelenteron or gastrovascular cavity
*its digestive system is called as sac like having a single opening for ingestion and for egestion 
*numerous stinging cells known as the nematocysts are present on the tentacles each nematocysts hollow thread coiled with in a capsule and a tiny hair like trigger  projecting outside 
mechanism of digestion 
such that when a prey comes in contact with the trigger the hollow thread of the nematocyst turns inside out eject a poison and then the prey is paralyzed or sometimes killed 
hydra then grasps its prey with its tentacles and pushes it into the digestive cavity through the open mouth 
the glandular cells in the gastrodermis secrets enzymes which start extracellular digestion 
gastrodermal flagellated cells and contraction of body helps in mixing of food with the enzymes and breaking it into fine food particles 
these fine particles are then engulfed by phagocytic action of gastrodermal cells where digestion is completed intracellularly in the digestive vacuoles 
absorption and assimilation 
digested food is adsorbed and utilized in the cells ectodermal cells depends on endodermal cells for their food 
indigestible food is expelled out from the gastrovascular cavity through open mouth 
digestion in planaria 
planaria is a free living flatworm found in fresh water streams and in pounds 
*in planaria there are both intracellular and extracellular digestion 
*digestive system is sac like with only a single opening known as the mouth located at the ventral surface near the middle of the animal 
*the mouth open ito a muscular passage known as the pharynx which leads into the intestine 
*intestine than divides into three branches 
*each of the main branch give rise to many of the small branches which end blindly at a point known as the ceaca
mechanism of digestion
planaria engulfs the prey by protruding reversible pharynx through the mouth and pushes it into the gastrovascular cavity 
food is digested into the intestine enzymes are secreted by the glands cell of the intestine and continue the process of the extracellular digestion small particles of food are finally engulfed by phagocytic vacuole digestion is completed intracellularly 
products of digestion pass to the rest of the body by the process of diffusion branched intestine also facilitates diffusion to material to the body cells 
undigested food is egested through the mouth 
digestion in cockroach 
digestive system
the digestive system of cockroach is tubular form 
it can be divided into three main parts that are 
mid gut 
*the foregut consist of mouth cavity pharynx crop gizzard 
*a pair of salivary glands are also present in the thorax region of the animal they secretes saliva which is poured into the mouth cavity 
*mandibles of mouth cut food into small pieces 
*saliva hydrolysis the starchy matter containing food 
*crop stores partly digested food than the food leaves the crop chunk by chunk and enters the gizzard 
*gizzard causes grinding of food and than the food is transported to mid gut 
the midgut is a short narrow tube called as the stomach short finger like hollow tubes called as the hepatic ceaca open into the exterior end of the midgut 
the enzymatic action of hepatic caecae and the midgut digest the food completely 
the hindgut is a long coiled tube the terminal part of which is a thick chamber the rectum which opens to the exterior through anus 
the indigestible food after the digestion storage in the rectum as the fecal matter is then egested out through anus    
                 thanks for reading                                                                               



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