blood and plasma

hope well thanks for your great support in the previous segments of this blog so in this segment of the blog i would like to talk about blood plasma their composition in human body their functions and the disorders that are related to them and the thing if you want to know anything related to biology so please let me know down in the comment section and please follow my blog to show your great support so
                            lets start 
 the circulatory system
the blood is the medium in which dissolved nutrients gases hormones and waste are transported throughout the body it is made up of two components that are 
*the plasma 
*the blood that is consist of cell or cell like bodies (white blood cells red blood cells platelets mainly)
it has been estimated that in a normal person plasma consists of about 55%by volume of the blood whereas cells or cell like bodies are about 45% by the volume of the blood 
*such that plasma is primarily water in which many of the proteins salts nutrients and wastes are dissolved water constitutes about 90%of the plasma 10% are the dissolved substances most of the dissolved substances are maintained at a constant or nearly constant level but other occur in varring concentrations
*the substance dissolved in plasma or present in plasma vary vary in their concentrations with the condition of the organism and the portion of the system that is under study or examination the solutes can be divided into six categories
that are 
*inorganic salts that are ions 
*plasma proteins 
*organic nutrients 
*nitrogenous waste products 
*special products being transferred or transported and gases which are dissolved in it 
inorganic ions or mineral ions 
together the inorganic ions and the salts make up about 0.9 percent of the plasma of humans by weight more than two third of this amount consist of the sodium chloride that is also known as the table salt
even the total concentration of the dissolved substances remains the same shifts in the concentrations of particular ion can create serious disturbances 
the normal pH of the blood is about 7.4 and is maintained between the narrow limits because the change in pH would affect the chemical reactions of the body 
the plasma proteins 
the plasma proteins consists of about 7-9% by the weight of the plasma most of these proteins are synthesized in the liver or by the liver 
some of the globulins known as the antibodies or the immunoglobulin are produced in the response of antigens by lymphocytes and then are passed to the plasma and lymph (if you want to know about lymph and all of its related things so please check my previous blog) the protein like prothrombin acts as a catalyst in blood clotting process 
fibrinogen takes place in the blood clotting process immunoglobulins play important role in body defense against body any kind of disease 
organic nutrients in the blood 
organic nutrients in the blood that includes glucose fats phospholipids amino acids and lactic acid some of them enters into the blood from the intestine absorption 
lactic acid produced in muscles as a result of glycolysis and is transported by blood to liver 
cholesterol is an important constituents it is metabolized to some of the extent but also serves as the precursor of steroid hormones 
plasma also contains nitrogenous waste products 
formed as a result of cellular metabolism these products are carried from the liver where they are produced 
in the body are carried from the liver where they are produced 
such as the carbon dioxide oxygen are present in the plasma of the blood 
blood cells 
they includes 
*red blood cells that are also known as the erythrocytes 
*white blood cells known as the leukocytes
red blood cells 
amount of red blood cells 
these are most of the numerous of the cells in the blood a cubic millimeter contains about 5-5.5 millions of them in the males and 4-4.5 million in females these cells when are formed have nucleus but it is lost before they enter the circulatory fluid or blood 
95% of the cytoplasm of red blood cells in the red pigment called as the hemoglobin the remaining 5% consist of enzymes salts and some of the other proteins the red blood cell without mature do not divide such that when the red blood cells mature their nucleus diminishes so that without the nucleus they cannot divide 
red blood cells are formed principally in the red bone marrow of the short bones such as the sternum ribs and vertebrates in their embryonic life they are formed in the liver and in the spleen
life span 
the average life span of the red blood cells four months after which it breaks down and disintegrates in the liver and the spleen partly by phagocytes by the process of the phagocytosis 
white blood cells 
these blood cells are colorless as they do not contains any of the pigments  
amount of WBCs
one cubic millimeter of blood contains about 7000 -8000 of them they are much larger than the red blood cells 
there are at least five different types which can be distinguished on the basis of the shapes of the nucleus and the density of the granules in the cytoplasm they can be grouped into two types that are 
granulocytes include 
such that all of them are formed in the red bone marrow 
agranulocytes are formed in the lymphoid tissues such as those of the lymph nodes (you can check about the lymph nodes in the previous segment of this blog) spleen tonsils adenoids and the thymus agranulocytes includes 
*lymphocytes (B & T) 
monocytes stay from 10 -20 hours in the blood then they enter tissues and also become tissue macrophages performing phagocytic functions 
lymphocytes have life spans of months or even years but this depends on the body need for these cells 
function of WBCs 
*leukocytes protect the body against foreign invaders and use circulatory system to travel to the site of the invasion 
*monocytes and neutrophils travel through capillaries and reach the the site of wound where bacteria have gained the entry
*macrophages and neutrophils feed on bacterial invaders or other foreign cells including cancer cells 
*they typically in the process and their bodies accumulates and contribute to the white substance pus seen at the infection site 
*basophils produces heparin a substance that inhibits blood clotting 
*these also produce chemicals such as the histamine that participates in allergic reactions and is response to tissue damage and the microbial invasion 
*lymphocytes helps to provide immunity 
*these are actually not cells but are fragments of large cells known as the megakaryoctes
*there is no nucleus in them 
*there is pigment present in them
*platelets helps in the conservation of fibrinogen a soluble plasma into the insoluble form fibrin the fibrin threads enmesh red blood cells and other platelets in the area of damaged tissue ultimately forming a blood clot 
*the clot serves as a temporary seal to prevent bleeding until the damaged tissue can be repaired  
functions of blood 
*the overall functions of blood in humans can be listed as following 
*the plasma proteins maintain colloid osmotic pressure of the blood 75% by albumin 25% by globulins and almost by the fibrinogen 
*blood helps to transport material in the body including nutrients water salts and the waste products all of the hormones are transported by the blood from the endocrine tissues to the target cells 
*gases such as that of carbon dioxide and oxygen are transported by the help of the blood 
*blood helps in body defense against any kind of disease neutrophils and the monocytes engulf and destroy invading micro organism such as the bacteria 
*blood provides the immunity by the lymphocytes 
*blood produces interferon and the antitoxins which the protein and protects our body nucleic acid and toxins of the invading organism 
*blood also acts as a buffer to balance the acid base concentrations 
*helps in maintaining the body temperature concentration of water and salts thus helps in the homeostasis
*walls of the blood vessels helps in the exchange of the material between the blood and the body tissues through the blood capillaries via the interstitial fluid 
*body helps the body in maintaining the internal environment by producing heparin histamines and also maintaining the amount of the chemicals including water and the salts in the body maintaining body temperature to be constant or nearly equal to constant 
*it helps in the blood clotting process and seas the wounds that spot entry of pathogens into the body 
                    thanks for reading                                   


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