What is urinary bladder? function and embryonic development of urinary bladder along with diseases related to urinary bladder

URINARY BLADDER

introduction 
 After the urine is formed in the kidneys it is transferred from the kidneys by help of a pair of a ureter to a special organ which goes by the name of the urinary bladder where the urine is stored for sometime and thus ultimately removed from the body. You can also understand urinary bladder as it acts as a temporary store house for the urine. Urinary bladder is a hollow muscular and elastic organ. A normal urinary bladder can hold about 400 - 600 ml of urine before getting the urge to urinate this urge to urinate is under control in adults but it is not properly under-controlled in case of children or more precisely you can say toddlers the wall of the urinary bladder is normally about 3-5 mm thick but this value can vary a little bit when it is fulled by urine. In a case when the urine starts to accumulate more than a certain limit that is a expansion of the wall of the bladder that is able because of a series of ridges that is present in the inner wall of the bladder and it is known as the rugae. If we talk about the position of the urinary bladder in the human body than it is placed on the floor of the pelvis that is also known as the pelvic floor it is situated below the peritoneal cavity near the pelvic floor and behind the pubic symphysis. When the urinary bladder is totally empty it is about the size of the pear. Urinary bladder is a component of the human urinary system and the precursor from which the urinary bladder is developed during the embryogeneis is the urogenital sinus. It removes the urine stores in it through the help of a external opening of the body that is known as the urethra. Like the pleura that covers the lungs from the outside the outside of the bladder is also protected by a serous membrane. The muscles that forms the urinary bladder is smooth muscle and the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder goes by a special name that is known as the detrusor muscles. The whole body of the urinary bladder is divided into some different sections that are as following

  • body  
  • neck
  • apex 
  • fundus 
in males the neck of the urinary bladder is adjacent to the prostate gland where as the apex is directed towards the upper part of the pubis symphysis. There is a formation that is known by the name of the trigone of the bladder and it is made by total of the three openings that are as following

  • two ureteric orifices from where a pair of ureter enters in the bladder that moves all the urine from the kidney to the bladder
  • and the other opening is internal urethral orifice 
there is also a very important function associated with this opening and it is that it is responsible for preventing the back-flow of the urine into the ureter that ultimately goes into the kidneys and there is a condition which is associated with the back-flow of the urine and such a condition is known as the vesicoureteral reflux and this condition can very very harmful for the body especially for the urinary system this trigone of the bladder is made up of smooth muscles that forms the floor of the bladder that is just superior to the urethra. Nervous supply and blood supply are the two things that are very important for a normal healthy and a functional organ. If we talk about about the supply of oxygenated blood or arterial blood to the urinary blood than we can say it is carries by the following arteries

  • superior vesical artery
  • inferior vesical artery
  • vaginal artery 
  • internal iliac arteries 
  • uterine arteries 
so these are the few sources arterial blood sources to be precise that provides the oxygenated blood to the urinary bladder there must be also also veins present in this system that would carry the deoxygenated blood of the urinary bladder to the heart again for the process of oxygenation and the veins that are involved in this process are as following

  • vesical veins 
  • internal iliac arteries 
  • vesical venous plexus 
so that was the one aspect that is the blood supply another very important thing required for the normal function of  the organ is the nervous supply. There are two sphincters of the urinary bladder that are the

  • internal sphincter 
  • external sphincter
that open automatically with a coordination as a result of which urine leaves the bladder and the nerves that are directly or indirectly involved in the working of the urinary bladder are as following

  • superior hypogastric plexuses 
  • inferior hypogastric plexuses 
  • pelvic splanchnic nerves 
  • general afferent fibers 
  • pudendal nerve 
  • hypogastric nerve 
the process of urination is controlled by a special center that is present in the brain-stem and it goes by the name of pontine micturition center. There is difference of nervous sensation in the kids more to be precise toddlers as compared to the adults and it is that they cannot store their urine in the bladder that means they don't have a proper nervous control over their bladder opening and closing and this nervous control in them matures with time. In some very old people same situation occurs because of old age their control over the body reduces and it also involves the bladder opening in some situations.




embryonic development of urinary bladder
The bladder and the urethra during the time of embryo-development derived from he cloaca which is actually a hind-gut structure that is a common chamber for the gastrointestinal and the urinary waste. The main precursor of the urinary bladder if the urogenital sinus. In the 4th-7th week of the embryo development it is divided into main two parts by the uro rectal spectum and these two parts are as following 
  • urogenital sinus 
  • anal canal
this urogenital sinus is further divided into further three sections or part or section and each section part than again forms a specific and these parts are
  • upper part 
  • pelvic part 
  • caudal part 
the upper part of the urogenital sinus forms the bladder. The pelvic part in males form the prostate gland and membranous urethra whereas in females it form the entire urethra and some of the reproductive tract and the last caudal part forms in females some part of the reproductive tract whereas in males it forms the urethra as the bladder developers from the urogenital sinus it absorbs the caudal part of the wolffian duct that ultimately becomes the trigone of the bladder. In the initial development of the urinary bladder it is continuous with the allantois and is also initially drained by the allantois this only occurs during the fetal development stage and this structure in later life becomes a fibrous cord that is known as the urachus and a remnant of this structure urachus can be found in adults. In infants and young ones the bladder is in the abdomen even when empty where as in case of adult males it is such that base of bladder lies between the rectum and the pubic symphysis and it is superior to the prostate whereas in case of the adult females in lies anterior to the vagina and inferior to the uterus.

disorders of urinary bladder
Like any other organ of the body that performs it normal functions in normal circumstances similarly urinary bladder works perfect under optimum conditions or conditions that are near to optimum. But some conditions such as fluctuations of certain levels factors or some disorders can interfere with the normal working of the urinary bladder and as this organ is a part of urinary system through which our body excretes out waste and if in a case when waste are not removed from the body it can cause pretty serious damages in the body. There are some general symptoms that are associated with urinary bladder disorders and they are as following 
  • unable to control urination 
  • urine leaking during everyday activities 
  • sudden need to urinate 
  • cloudy urine 
  • blood in urine 
  • frequent urination 
  • pain during or after urination 
  • bed wetting 
some of the common test that are used to detect any abnormality in the urinary bladder are as following 
  • cystoscopy 
  •  urinalysis 
  • urodynamic testing 
where as some of the common treatment methods that are adopted for any urinary disorder are as following 

  • surgery
  • bladder catheterization
  • cystoscopy
  • kegel exercises
  • anti spam medication
there were the general symptoms treatment methods and test to detect or treat any kind of disorder that is related to the urinary bladder there is a question arises at this point and it is that what are these diseases the disorder of the urinary so some of the diseases of the urinary bladder are as following 

  • dysuria    
  • cystocele
  • bed wetting 
  • urinary incontinence
  • overactive bladder
  • hematuria 
  • urinary retention 
  • cystitis
  • urinary stones 
  • bladder cancer
  • vesicoureteral reflux

vesicoureteral reflux
The normal path in which urine is formed and removed from the body is that it is formed in the kidneys after which it goes into the bladder from where it is removed to outside of the body through the urethra but in this condition urine instead of going from bladder to urethra it goes back into the kidneys it is usually more among the infants and young children. Vesicoureteral reflux are of two that are 
  • primary vesicoureteral reflux
  • secondary vesicoureteral reflux
primary vesicoureteral reflux is usually caused in children and such children are born with a defect in the valve that prevents urine from flowing back from the bladder into the ureters where as the secondary vesicoureteral reflux is a type of reflux that occurs or is most commonly caused from failure of the bladder to empty properly that may be either due to the blockage or failure in the bladder muscles or damage to any of the nerve that is responsible for the emptying of the bladder some of the common symptoms that is associated with this disorder are as following
  • burning sensation while urinating 
  • a strong persistent urge to urinate 
  • cloudy urine 
  • small frequent urination 
  • fever
  • pain in the side of the abdomen 
  • lack of appetite 
  • irritability 
  • bed wetting 
  • constipation
dysuria
It is a condition in which the patient fells discomfort burning sensation or pain during urination. Some of the common reason for this disorder may be be any kind of infection that may be in the kidneys ureters or bladder or also in urethra there are also some factors that can cause this disorder and they are as following 
  • diabetes 
  • kidney stones 
  • enlarged prostate 
  • advanced age 
  • pregnancy
  • STD
some of the common symptoms that are associated with this disorder are as following 
  • fever 
  • foul smelling urine 
  • increased urination 
  • urge of urination 
we can also conclude the causes of the disease as following 
  • urinary tract infection 
  • sexually transmitted infections 
  • prostate infection 
  • kidney stones 
  • ovarian cyst 
  • interstitial cystitis 
  • chemical sensitivity 
  • certain medications 
  • pain in the side of the body 
 cystocele
Cystocele is a condition that mostly affects women and it is a condition in which women's bladder bulges into her vagina this condition also goes by the name of prolapsed bladder some of the common symptoms that are associated with this disorder are as following 
  • vaginal bulge  
  • fatigue 
  • bleeding 
  • sensation of pelvic heaviness
  • frequent or urgent urination 
  • fecal incontinence 
  • frequent urinary tract infections 

Comments

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