what is parathyroid gland? what are its functions and the diseases related to parathyroid gland

PARATHYROID GLAND

introduction 
parathyroid gland is also one of the most important endocrine gland of the body that is also present in the neck region in case of humans and some of the tetrapods in humans there are actually four parathyroid glands that are present at variable regions at the back of the thyroid gland the hormone that parathyroid gland produces and secretes is known as parathyroid hormone (PTH) that is released in response of low blood calcium levels in the blood from the epithelial lining of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches all of the four parathyroid glands are derived. The total four parathyroid glands the upper two and the lower two are produced in such a way the upper two (upper left and right) derives from the fourth pouch whereas the lower two (lower left and lower right) are produced from the third pouch . There are two parathyroid glands on each lobe of the thyroid gland such as two lobes of the thyroid gland have four parathyroid gland on them each of the four parathyroid gland are of mustard yellow color and normally they are about the size of a rice grain but they can also be as large as a pea and still can be normal these glands are usually about 6 mm long 3-4 mm wide and 1-2 mm anteroposterioly both upper and lower parathyroid gland present on the two lobes of the thyroid gland are known as superior and inferior parathyroid gland respectively normal and healthy parathyroid gland in women are about 35 mg and in men normal and healthy gland are about 30 mg . Each parathyroid vein drains into the superior middle and inferior thyroid vein the superior as well as the middle thyroid vein drains into the brachiocephalic vein parathyroid gland are named because of their proximity to the .thyroid gland  but they have a completely different role than thyroid gland in the parathyroid gland there are two types of unique cells that are as following 
  • chief cells 
  • oxyphil cells  

 hormone of parathyroid gland
the hormone produced and secreted by the parathyroid gland is parathyroid hormone (PTH) this hormone is actually a small protein that is responsible for the control of level of calcium and phosphate homeostasis as well as this hormone is also responsible for the bone physiology parathyroid hormone have effect antagonistic to the effect of calcitonin released from thyroid gland  

function of parathyroid gland 
the most important and the major function of parathyroid gland is to maintain the calcium and phosphate level in the body do that the nervous and muscular system can work properly some of the function of PTH are 
PTH increases blood calcium level by directly stimulating osteoblast and thereby indirectly stimulating osteoclast to perform the breakdown of bone and release calcium from it PTH increases gastrointestinal calcium absorption by activating vitamin D parathyroid hormone is also a major regulator of serum phosphate concentration through action on kidney it is an inhibitor of proximal tubular absorption of phosphorus through the activation of vitamin D

diseases related to parathyroid gland 
diseases related to parathyroid gland is because of over or under working of parathyroid gland as a result of which will increase or decrease concentration of parathyroid gland in normal than normal 
two different type of diseases caused as a result of increased or decreased concentration of parathyroid hormone are as following 
  • hyperparathyroidism 
  • hyperparathyroidism
hyperparathyroidism                                                                                                                                                          hyperparathyroidism is a state in which there is a excess parathyroid hormone circulation and this can also become the cause of bone pain and tenderness due to increase bone re-adsorption hyperparathyroidism can be divided into three different states or types that are ass following
  • primary hyperparathyroidism 
  • secondary hyperparathyroidism 
  • tertiary hyperparathyroidism
  1. the most common cause of this type of disorder is due to benign proliferation of chief cells in single gland and sometimes rarely multiple endocrine neoplasmia (MEN) syndrome such a type of hyperparathyroidism caused by such conditions id known as primary  hyperparathyroidism and such a condition is treated by the surgical removal of abnormal parathyroid gland 
  2. secondary hyperparathyroidism is mainly caused due to renal disease in a condition when to much calcium is lost from the body than the parathyroid gland tries to compensate  for the loss of calcium and try to maintain a steady level of calcium in body and as a result of which parathyroid gland overworks to produce more and more parathyroid hormone and such a case of hyperparathyroidism is known as secondary hyperparathyroidism 
  3. tertiary hyperparathyroidism is directly linked with the secondary hyperparathyroidism because tertiary hyperparathyroidism is such a condition that is caused due to excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone after a long period of secondary hyperparathyroidism and as a result of which there is a high level of calcium in the blood as a result of which there will be unregulated function of the parathyroid gland and secretion of parathyroid hormone following a period of persistent parathyroid stimulates and such a type of hyperparathyroidism is known as tertiary hyperparathyroidism
hyperparathyroidism 
                                                            such as state in which there is a decreased parathyroid activity is known as hyperparathyroidism such a condition is mainly caused as the result of the damage to the parathyroid glands or any type of damage to their blood supply during the thyroid surgery hyperparathyroidism can also be caused as a result of a genetic syndrome that is known as DiGeorge syndrome that is inherited as an autosomal dominant syndrome sometimes in some persons their tissues are resistant to the effect of parathyroid hormone such a condition is known as pseudohypoparathyroidism in such as case the parathyroid gland are fully functional but the hormone itself is not able to perform its function as a result of which there is a decrease blood calcium levels pseudohypoparathyroidism is also associated with a genetic condition that is known as albright's hereditary osteodystrophy . Hyperparathyroidism may present with symptoms associated with decreased calcium and is generally treated with vitamin D analogue .

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