what is biological organization? and 12 levels of biological organization

BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

INTRODUCTION
                               biological organization is the hierarchy of complex biological structures and system that defines life using a reproductive approach in order to understand the various phenomena of life we use and study biological organization at different levels from the very basic of subatomic and atomic level to the organism itself and beyond with the study of community ecosystem and levels such as biosphere each level in the hierarchy of biological organization represents increase in complexity of organism from its previous level in biological organization objects or things at each level of biological organization is primarily composed of previous level's basic unit 

IMPORTANCE
                          the knowledge of biological organization have its importance in the fields of scientific research especially in the field of medical sciences such as in medical sciences without proper knowledge and application of biological organization it would be very difficult or near to impossible to study the effect of various physical and chemical changes to diseases and its effects and possible actions on body functions 
at the time of emergence of life on earth it was very simple but as the time passes it have undergone many evolutionary changes to produce the complex and diverse life forms that we observe today so by using this system we can study the various changes that life have undergone from the start till now at different levels

LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION 
              in biological organization we study life form at different levels ranging from the smallest such as subatomic level to the most complex ecosystems and biosphere and hence it allows us to study things at a very wide spectrum so the levels of biological organization are as following 

  • subatomic and atomic levels 
  • molecular level
  • cells 
  • tissues 
  • organ 
  • organ systems 
  • organism
  • species 
  • population
  • community
  • ecosystem
  • biosphere

        SUBATOMIC AND ATOMIC LEVEL 
every thing in this world whether it is living or is non living made up of atom and its sub atomic particles such as electron protons and neutrons now a days we know that there are more than 100 sub atomic particles such hyperon neutrino anti-neutrino mesons but electron proton and neutrons are the fundamental ones and atom is the smallest particle of matter hydrogen oxygen carbon nitrogen are are the most common atom found in almost all of the biological molecules

MOLECULAR LEVEL
in living organisms elements do not occur in isolated form rather they form or tend to form a stable form by combining with each other by the help of either ionic bonding or covalent bond to form a stable structure known as molecules and elements of living organisms or elements which occur in a particular organism are known as bio elements 
molecules on the basis of their molecular weight and size are further classified as 
  • micro-molecules
  • macro-molecules
an organism is made up by combination of very large amount of these micro and macro molecules and they are inorganic and organic in nature respectively

CELLULAR LEVEL
cell is the structural and the functional unit of life it is the smallest unit of life that has the ability to form complex structures and has the ability to carry out all of the reactions that sustain the life of a living organisms 
in living organism various micro and macro molecules combine with each other to form cell and sub cellular structures known as organelles 
organelles such as mitochondria endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes are basically sub cellular structures that carry out the functions of  he cell different organelles perform different and specific function and each function is crucial to sustain life their are basically to different types of cells that are prokaryotes and eukaryotes and they differ with each other on the basis of their nuclear material and on the basis of their organelles 

TISSUE LEVEL 
in living organism group of similar cells organisms to form specific structures know as tissues that carry out a specific function limited to them in both plants and animals different cells are specialized for peculiar functions such as some examples as
  • phloem tissues in plants are responsible for conduction of food
  • xylem tissues in plants are responsible for conduction of water and minerals
  • muscle tissue which are responsible for contraction and relaxation   
  • glandular tissues responsible for secretion
  • secretory epithelial tissue responsible for secretion of gastric juice 
  • nerve cells for conduction of nerve cells 
  • parenchymatous cells to store surplus food and they are present in plants
  • sclarenchymatous cells present in plants are responsible for giving support to plant 
formation of a organ is very specific process and is according to the need and requirement of the organism in animals organs and organ and organ system is more complex than in plants 

ORGAN SYSTEM 
in living organism various organs join and work with each other to form organ system and different functions of different work with each other coordinated to perform a specific process 
some of the examples of organ system present in humans are as following 
  • nervous system 
  • digestive system  
  • muscular system 
  • reproductive system 
  • respiratory system 
  • skeleton system 
ORGANISM 
various organs and organs system in plants and animals works together and assemble to form an whole organism 
all of the functions and processes in an organism in co-ordinates with each other in animals this co-ordination is by 
  • nervous system 
  • endocrine system 
where as in plants co-ordination is only achieved by change of hormones 

SPECIES 
a specie is a group of same individuals that can interbreed freely in nature and can produce fertile offspring but they are re-productively isolated from all other group in nature different specie interacts with each other in different ways such as some of the ways by which different species interacts with each other are as following
  • some species hunts and feeds on other species 
  • some species works with each other and both are benefited 
  • some species takes advantage of other and in return give nothing 
  • but there are also some species that take advantage of other but in return does harm to the host species
POPULATION 
a population is a group of living organism of the same species located at the same place at the same time and interaction with each other 
population level of biological organization has its attributes which are due to members of that pollution living together  

COMMUNITY 
if members of different population lives together with each other at the same time and same place and interacts with each other than it is known as community 
community is a dynamic collection of organism in which one population may increase and other may decrease due to fluctuations some communities are complex and well interrelated interactions between organisms in an ecosystem can take many shapes it may predation parasitism commensalism mutualism and may in the form of competition 

ECOSYSTEM 
an ecosystem is defined as biological community together with the associated abiotic environment 
an ecosystem is made up of main two components 
  • biotic or living 
  • abiotic or non living 

BIOSPHERE 
 biosphere is defined as a thin layer of earth in which all living organism exist it spreads over to the surface of earth extending about 8 to 10 km above in atmosphere and also same distance in the depths of oceans 
the two main components of biosphere are 
  • habitat defined as the place where organism lives 
  • niche defined as a role a specie play in its community 


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