lymph system and immune system

hope well thanks for your great support in the previous segments of this blog so in this segment of the blog i would like to talk about the lymph system its location in human body its function lymph nodes and the immune system of human body its components cell response of disease causing agents and its types and the thing if you want to know about anything related to biology so please let me know down in the comment section and please follow my blog to show your great support so
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lymph system
*such that lymph system is defines as a collection of tissues and different organs that helps the body to excrete waste and harmful material out of the body the first and the primary function of this lymph system is to transfer a disease fighting agent a type of fluid that contain white blood cells that fight against the disease causing agents that is known as the lymph
*the system that consist of lymph capillaries lymph vessels lymphoid masses lymph nodes and the lymph fluid flows in the system
*such that the lymph capillaries end blindly in the blood tissues where the pressure from the accumulation of interstitial fluid or extracellular fluid forces the fluid into the lymph capillaries 
*when this fluid enters the lymph capillaries it is known as the lymph the lymph vessels empty in the veins so lymph is transit between the interstitial fluid and the blood 
*the intercellular space in the walls of lymph vessels are larger than those of the capillaries of blood vascular system so larger molecules from the interstitial fluid can also enter the lymph capillaries 
*lymph capillaries join with each other to form larger and larger lymph vessels and ultimately form thoracic lymph duct which opens into a subclavian vein 
*the flow of lymph is always directed towards the thoracic duct 
*in the intestine the branches of lymph capillaries within villi are called as the lacteal
*the flow of lymph is maintained by activity of skeleton muscles movement of viscera breathing movements and the valves which prevent back flow of lymph 
lymph nodes 
*along the pathway the lymph vessels have at certain points masses of connective tissue where lymphocytes these are known as the lymph nodes 
*several afferent lymph vessels enter a lymph node which is drained by a single efferent lymph vessels 
lymph nodes are present in the neck region axilla and the groin of humans 
in addition several lymphoid masses are present in the walls of digestive track in the mucosa and submucosa the larger masses spleen and thymus tonsils and adenoids are all the lymphoid masses these produce lymphocytes 
function of lymphatic system 
there are several functions performed by the lymphatic system 
*in an average person about three liters more fluid leaves the blood capillaries than is reabsorbed by them each day it than returns this excess fluid and its dissolved proteins and other substances to the blood 
*the lacteal of villi absorbs large globular fat which are released by interstitial cells after the product of digestion of fats are absorbed after a fatty meal fat globules may make up 1% of the total lymph 
*the lymphatic system helps defend the body against the foreign invaders lymph nodes have lymphocytes and macrophages that destroy bacteria and virus the painful swelling of lymph nodes in certain diseases such as mumps is a common example is largely a result of the accumulation of dead lymphocytes and macrophages 
*just as the lymph nodes filter lymph the spleen filters blood exposing it to the macrophages and lymphocytes that may destroy foreign particles and aged red blood cells 
the capacity to recognize the intrusion of any of the material foreign to the body and to mobilize cells and cell products to help remove the particular sort of foreign material with great speed and effectiveness is called as the immunity 
immune system 
in animals in addition to physical barriers that is skin and mucous membrane and phagocytes there is a third system to defend the body against the foreign particles and that system is the immune system 
the components of immune system consist of lymphocytes B & T and the antibodies which are special type of proteins these antibodies are immunoglobulins which are synthesized by vertebrates in response to antigens and immobilise it or sets in motion events that ultimately cause its destruction 
*antigens or immunogen is a foreign substance often a protein which stimulates the formation of antibodies 
*antibodies are specific that cause the destruction of the antigen which stimulated their production antibodies are manufactured then secreted into the lymph and the blood where they circulate freely 
cell mediated response 
T cells recognize antigen that combat the micro organisms and or effect the rejection of the foreign tissues in case of tissue transplant this is called as the cell mediated response
humoral mediated response
B cells recognize antigen and from the plasma cell clone these plasma cells synthesize and liberate antibodies into the blood plasma and tissue fluid here antibodies attach to the surface of the bacteria and speed up their phagocytosis or combine with the neutralise toxins produced by the living organisms by producing anti toxins this is called as the humoral immune response 
*when we get vaccination against a specific diseases antigen we become immune to that infection or disease such that if we get vaccination against polio smallpox measles mumps stc once in our life we are protected or become immune to that infection in our future life 
types of immunity 
active immunity 
*the use of vaccines which stimulates the production of antibodies in the body and making a person immune against the disease or infection than it is known as the active immunity 
*but this active immunity has been achieved by artificially by introducing antigens in the body so it is also known as the artificial induced active immunity 
*but when a person is exposed to a infection antigen he becomes ill in most of the cases survives then this immunity develops against that disease is called as the natural immunity 
passive immunity 
*in contrast to active immunity in which case antigen are introduced to stimulate the production of antibodies by artificially or naturally antibodies are injected in the form of antisera to make a person immune against a disease is known as the passive immunity 
*in body antigen antibody complex are formed which are taken up by the phagocytes and destroyed the patient is pared the complication or possibly death caused by the poison or venom 
*passive immunity response is immediate but not long lasting because no time is given for the production of sufficient level of antibodies 
*the method of passive immunity is used to combat infection of tetanus infectious hepatitis rabies snake bite venom 
*in the case of snake bite venoin passive immunity is produced by the antitoxins so the serum is called as the antivenom serum 
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