aquatic hydrospheric ecosystem

hi
hope well thanks for your great support in the previous segments of this blog so in this segment of this blog i would like to talk about some major ecosystems of earth such as aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem all of its aspects and different points related to it and the thing if you want to know anything related to biology so please let me know down in the comment section so
                             lets start 
life on earth such as on land is both effected by weather and climate 
weather
it is defines as the short term fluctuation in temperature of humidity wind cloud cover wind and last for days or for years 
climate 
climate refers to overall pattern of weather that may prevail from year to year even century to century in some particular regions 
           aquatic(hydrospheric)ecosystem      
hydrospheric ecosystem is defined as a system in which living and non living components exchange materials and transfer of energy also takes place with in the water 
salt water oceans and sea are the largest ecosystem of the earth forming about 71%of the total earth whereas on the other hand fresh water ecosystem is only 1% of this earth such that some of the unique features of aquatic ecosystem are given below 
temperature 
water changes temperature more slower that the air so temperature in aquatic ecosystem is more suitable to support life
absorption of energy 
such that water may appear transparent yet it also absorbs light to some of the extend to support life in it so that the life can be sustained in it by important process such as that of photosynthesis and many more even in the clearest water the intensity of light deceases rapidly such as that light is being absorbed by the water and at a depth of about 600 feet not enough light penetrates to support photosynthesis 
nutrients 
the nutrients in aquatic ecosystem is tend to be concentrated near the bottom of such water bodies where not enough penetrates to support photosynthesis 
abundant water supply and appropriate temperature
water is essential requirement for life it is available abundantly in aquatic ecosystem to support life the major factors that determines the quality and quantity of life in these bodies is energy and nutrients such that the temperature in such water bodies is very suitable for major of the metabolic process that occur in a living organism
productivity of aquatic ecosystem 
productivity in such of the water bodies is indicated by consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen during the process of photosynthesis 
productivity of aquatic ecosystem is basically determined by the light and nutrients light intensity and quality vary with the water depth so the primary productivity also varies with the light the amount of nutrients also changes with seasons productivity also varies from zone to zone 
fresh water lakes 
fresh water lakes vary tremendously in various characters such as in 
*size

*depth
*nutrient contents 
life zones 
life in different life zones is based upon the intensity of light and the nutrients contents the lake ecosystem can be divided into three main and major zones that are 
littoral zone 
characteristics
*this is also known as the near shore zone 
*in this zone water is shallow abundant light is available for the plants plants can be anchored directly and adequate nutrients from the bottom of the sediments 
life forms 
plants 
plants in littoral zone communities are the most diverse such as the water lilies many of submerged vascular plants and algae flourish at the deepest regions of the littoral zone the plants of this zone traps sediments carried by streams increasing the nutrient content in this region
microscopic organisms
living among the anchored plants are the microscopic organisms called as the plankton such that they can be divided into two major groups that are 
phytoplankton that means drifting plants these includes photosynthetic protista bacteria and algae 
zooplankton that means drifting animals such as the protozoa and many of the little crustaceans  
animals 
the greatest diversity of animals in the lakes is also found in this zone of the lake they are also off two types such that they are 
littoral invertebrates such that these animals includes little small crustaceans insects larva snails flatworms hydra 
littoral vertebrates includes frogs water snakes and turtles
as the water increase from the shore plants and unable to anchor to the bottom and still collect enough light for the photosynthesis this open water area is further divided into two regions that are 
life forms
profundal zone  
limnetic zone 
characteristics
in this zone of the lake enough light light penetrates to support photosynthesis 
produces 
here only phytoplankton are present that includes cyanobacteria blue green algae serving only as the producers 
consumers 
these are only eaten by protozoa and many of the small crustaceans which in term are consumed by the fishes 
profundal zone 
characteristics
here light is insufficient to support photosynthesis 
life forms 
the organisms of this zone is mainly nourishes by detritus that falls from the littoral zone and limnetic zone and by the help of the incoming sediments decomposes and detritus feeders such as the snails certain larva's bacteria fungi and fishes inhibit it
intervention of man in aquatic ecosystem 
human activities may greatly accelerates process of eutrophication by different mechanisms
sources of eutrophication  
nutrients are carried into lakes from farm feedlots and by sewage 
*water discharge from the sewage treatment plant after the removal of solid waste often contains phosphates and nitrates of wastes and detergents
*water moving through fields supplied by natural manure of cattle takes fertilizers to lakes 
*acids also lower the pH of water and makes it acidic 
mechanisms of destruction of ecosystem 
*added nutrients support excessive growth of phytoplankton 
*phytoplankton and blue green algae from a scum on lake surface depriving submerged plants of sunlight as a result they die 
*the dead plant bodies are decomposed by bacteria utilizing the oxygen present in water 
*due to the deprivation of oxygen fish snails and insects larva die and their bodies are decomposing causing further decreases of oxygen and increasing bacteria  
*certain anaerobic bacteria produces foul smelling gases although being rich in nutrients polluted lakes smell bad 
*acidified lakes with lower pH due to burning of fossil fuels further deteriorates ecosystem 
ultimately most of the trophic levels including fish eliminates and bacteria and blue green algae dominates the community
               thanks for reading                                          
                

        

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